Preliminary Insights from a U.S. Probability Sample on Adolescents’ Pornography Exposure, Media Psychology, and Sexual Aggression

目录

  • 视频
  • 引用
  • 说明
  • 作者介绍

1.论文导读

  • 论文内容概述
  • 研究目标
  • 假设
  • 研究方法(见后附图表)
  • 论文结论

2.可视化图片

3.感想

4.原文链接

5.推荐影视作品及书目

Pornography is an aspect of people’s inner life.(Georges Bataille

Pornography can be said to be praise for life until death.(Georges Bataille

We are born with sexual organs and have the ability to express sexual behavior, but our sexual behavior and sexual orientation are mainly obtained through the social environment in which we live.(Katchadourian, Herant A. 

Sex is a whole phenomenon. It’s not too much to say that a person is full of sex; A person’s sexual quality is a part of all his qualities. There is an old saying that makes some sense: “a person’s sex is what he is.”( Havelock Ellis

Synopsis

This paper is a paper published by Paul J. Wright, Bryant Paul and Debby herbenick in 2021..  Authors hope to explore the relationship with U.S Adolescents’ Pornography Exposure, Media Psychology, and Sexual Aggression

Authors

Paul J. Wright&Bryant Paul.The Media School, Indiana University, Bloomington, Indiana, USA.

Debby Herbenick.The Center for Sexual Health Promotion in the School of Public Health, Indiana University, Bloomington, Indiana, USA

Introduction

All along,Sexual aggression is recognized as a common public health crisis.Adolescence is an important time of sexual development.During this time, most people explore masturbation, first see pornography, and/or experience a range of partnered “firsts,” including their first kiss, oral sex, and/or vaginal intercourse.

The question of pornography’s influence on sexual aggression has a long and contentious history in the social and behavioral sciences.A variety of disciplines have provided valuable data and theorizing.Nevertheless,the vast majority of studies have focused on variables that,while involved in the psychology of any potential effects, are not directly indicative of the media psychology of pornography consumers.

The present paper tries to filled the vacancy and address these problems,focus on the need for additional,focus on the need for additional theoretical nuance and measurement specificity in the media psychology literature on pornography and sexual aggression.

This paper is based on three objectives:

  • The first aim is to examine whether the theoretically important but as of yet unstudied media psychology variables of pornography motivation, pornography realism, and pornography identification are related to sexual aggression.
  • The second aim is to add findings from a population-based probability survey to a literature mostly consisting of non-probability samples.
  • The third aim is to add results from a teenage sample to a literature mostly consisting of adult samples.

Based on past research,we can find several surprising conclusions.First, aggression is notan uncommon feature of contemporary, popular pornography. Second, while men are more likely to be perpetrators than women, women have also been documented as perpetrating aggressive acts. Third, targets of aggression rarely respond by displaying displeasure or outrage. Instead, they generally offer no emotional response or show signs of pleasure.

Hypotheses

Given Wright’s (2011, 2014, 2020) script acquisition, activation,application model puts forth the following hypotheses:

H1: Sexual aggression is more probable among those who have been exposed to pornography than among those who have not.

H2: A stronger motivation to learn about sex from pornography is associated with a higher probability of sexual aggression.

H3: The probability of sexual aggression increases as the perception of pornography’s realism increases.

H4: The probability of sexual aggression increases as identification with actors in pornography increases.

Results

In the research,consistent with expectations, having been exposed to pornography and perceiving pornography as realistic were associated with increased sexual aggression risk. Also, a stronger level of identification with pornographic actors was associated with an increased probability of sexual aggression, albeit at a marginal level of statistical significance. Conversely, a higher motivation to learn from pornography was unrelated to sexual aggression. 

It’s surprising that pornography exposure and aggression have found similar results for males and females.

Summary

In short, as katchadourian, herant A. said, We are born with sexual organs and have the ability to express sexual behavior, but our sexual behavior and sexual orientation are mainly obtained through the social environment in which we live.The false authenticity of pornographicty has a certain negative impact on people’s correct sexual concept, and teenagers’ correct understanding of these pornographicty can reduce these negative effects. Relevant companies should also pay more attention to their influence,to improve the authenticity of pornographic and reduce violent plots in pornographicty,and shoot more instructional pornographicty.

基于美国概率样本关于青少年色情接触色情制品、媒体心理和性侵犯的初步见解

色情是人内在生活的一个方面。(Georges Bataille

色情,可以说是对生的赞许,至死为止。(Georges Bataille

我们生来带有性器官,具有表现性行为的能力,可是我们的性行为及性取向则主要通过我们生活的社会环境而获得。(Katchadourian, Herant A. 

性是一个通体的现象,我们说一个人浑身是性,也不为过;一个人的性的素质是融贯他全部素质的一部分,分不开的。有句老话说得很有几分道理:“一个人的性是什么,这个人就是什么。”( Havelock Ellis

说明

本文是Paul J. Wright, Bryant Paul 和Debby Herbenick于2021年发表的一篇文章。作者希望探讨色情作品对美国青少年在色情作品接触媒体心理学方面以及和性侵行为的关联。

作者介绍

Paul J. Wright&Bryant Paul.The Media School, Indiana University, Bloomington, Indiana, USA.

Debby Herbenick.The Center for Sexual Health Promotion in the School of Public Health, Indiana University, Bloomington, Indiana, USA

导读

一直以来,性侵都被认为是一种普遍的公共卫生危机。而青春期是性发展的一个重要时期。在这个时期里大多数人尝试手淫和第一次看色情片,经历一系列“第一次”,包括初吻口交阴道性交。

色情作品对性侵的影响问题在社会和行为科学中有着悠久而有争议的历史。虽然各种学科都提供了有价值的数据和理论,但绝大多数的研究都集中在变量上,这些变量虽然涉及任何潜在影响的心理,但并不直接表明色情作品消费者的媒体心理。

这篇文章尝试去填补这一空白并解决这些问题,重点聚焦于在关于色情和性侵的媒体心理学文献中增加额外的那些理论上的细微差异和测量特异性。

这篇文章基于三个目标展开:

  • 检验理论上重要但尚未研究的媒介心理变量,即观看色情作品的动机、色情作品的真实性和对色情作品中角色的认同是否与性侵行为有关
  • 将基于人口的概率调查结果添加到主要由非概率样本组成的文献中
  • 将青少年样本的结果添加到主要由成人样本组成的文献中

Introduction

基于过去的文章,我们能发现几个意料之外的结论。首先,攻击性在当代流行的色情作品中并不少见。第二,虽然男性比女性更有可能成为施暴者,但女性也有犯下攻击性行为的记录。第三,被攻击的对象很少会表现出不高兴或愤怒。相反,他们通常没有情绪反应甚至表现出高兴。

假设

根据3AM理论(Wright’s (2011, 2014, 2020) script acquisition, activation,application model)提出以下假设:

H1:接触过色情内容的人比没有接触过色情内容的人更容易产生性侵行为。

H2:从色情作品中学习性知识的动机越强,性侵的可能性就越大。

H3:性侵的可能性随着对色情现实主义的认知的增加而增加。

H4:性侵的可能性随着对色情片中演员认同的增加而增加。

Literature Review
Method

研究结果

在研究中与预期一致的是,接触过色情作品并认为色情作品是真实的,会增加性侵的风险。此外,对色情演员的认同程度越高,性侵的可能性就越高,尽管在统计显著性的边缘水平。相反,从色情作品中学习的更高动机与性侵犯无关。

令人意外的是在接触色情作品与性侵犯行为在男性和女性上发现了类似的结果。

小结

总而言之,像Katchadourian, Herant A.说的:“我们生来带有性器官,具有表现性行为的能力,可是我们的性行为及性取向则主要通过我们生活的社会环境而获得。”色情作品错误的真实性对人们产生正确的性观念有一定的负面影响,而青少年正确地认识这些色情作品可以减少这些负面影响。色情作品的制作公司也更应该注意到其的影响力,提高色情作品的真实性,减少暴力情节,多拍摄一些指导性色情作品(instructional porn)。

信息可视化图(infographic)

感想

这篇论文还蛮有意思,性这件事是多棱面的,即使是看同一面,也可能因为不同的分析方式从而导出截然对立的结论。比如,将色情片视作仅关乎自我娱乐的对象,表现出无关乎他人的态度则不无道理。但彻底抛却其对未成年人和社会的影响并将其视为一个污渍,一个肮脏且上不了台面的,一定是对的吗?
这值得讨论。但我必须要说我们社会对于性这个话题还是免不了遮掩和尴尬。不过这几年陆续有影视作品对这个话题进行探讨,以一种平静的姿态向社会发出疑问,我们需要邪魅,需要发现其中隐藏的不少问题。

这是一个蛮特别的体验,在艺术院校上文献课(其中还包含数学和英语的教学,FREEZhao也特有意思。最后还有算是对人生道路的指导课吧)。进入到他人的思维中去,参与讨论一些对我而言全新的领域。哪怕只有几周时间,它给我带来的幸福与愉悦是真实的,它所存放和减轻的精神疲惫也是真实的。

最后插一句,FREEZhao的课谁不选谁后悔!都给我来上!!

原文

Paul J. Wright, Bryant Paul & Debby Herbenick (2021) Preliminary
Insights from a U.S. Probability Sample on Adolescents’ Pornography Exposure, Media
Psychology, and Sexual Aggression, Journal of Health Communication, 26:1, 39-46, DOI:
10.1080/10810730.2021.1887980

P.S.

花卉插图来自Georgia O’keeffe

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