The Influence of Video-Modeled Sexual Assault Disclosure and Self-Efficacy Messages on Sexual Assault Disclosure Efficacy of Adolescent Girls

视频模拟性侵犯披露与自我效能讯息对少女性侵犯披露效能的影响

作者:Rachel E. Riggs & Eric. E. Rasmussen

出处:Rachel E. Riggs & Eric. E. Rasmussen (2021): E. Rasmussen(2021):视频模拟的性侵犯披露和自我效能信息对少女性侵犯披露效能的影响,健康传播杂志,DOI: 10.1080/10810730.2021.1943729

摘要

性侵犯会对少女产生直接有害的影响。但是许多少女在遭遇性侵犯后会面临披露方面的壁垒,这会导致她们选择不披露相关情况,进而对身心健康产生负面影响。

  媒体干预可能有助于激励少女的性侵犯披露效能。媒体中模仿披露行为的自我效能信息可以激励青春期女孩更有信心去披露有关侵犯的信息,并寻求积极健康的结果。

这项研究使用准实验的方法来测试YouTube视频博客中关于性侵犯披露的自我效能信息的效果。研究提出了六种假设,分别探讨了不同媒体刺激对观看者披露效能和对受害者的歧视的影响,以及媒体刺激,受害者感知到的歧视,应对行为与披露效能之间的关系。

结果表明,在认同自我效能型媒体角色的少女中,自我效能信息的曝光会产生更高的性侵犯披露效能,且这与感知到性侵犯受害者的歧视和接近应对行为间接相关。针对少女性侵犯的披露的适当干预可以包括对披露的更全面的看法,并使用像YouTube视频博客这样的新媒体来传递自我效能的信息。

词语解释:

准实验法(准实验研究):采用一定的操控程序,利用自然场景,灵活地控制实验对象。

自我效能(感):个人对自己完成某方面工作能力的主观评估。评估结果将直接影响一个人的行为动机。

社会认知理论:Bandura(2001)的社会认知理论描述了个体向周围的人学习的过程,包括通过媒体模型。

实验:

本文采用了线上准实验法,征集了美国不同人种的青少年女性实验者共101人,设置自我效能的媒体信息,按时间顺序的媒体信息及对照媒体信息三种媒体信息刺激,要求参与者在观看媒体信息后假设一个关于自己被性侵犯并考虑是否向母亲披露的情景,并根据假设的情景在李克特量表回答相应问题。

文章围绕这几个方面阐述媒体刺激对少女性侵犯披露效能的影响:

  1. 自我效能信息:媒体模型告知个体行为使之克服执行行为障碍并激励个体行为的过程,并提出假设1:少女在观看一个模仿性侵犯披露效能的视频时性侵犯披露效能水平比观看按时间顺序叙述的视频和观看对照视频高。
  2. 媒体曝光和感知到的歧视:暴露于自我效能的健康信息与性侵犯披露效能的间接联系,接触干预措施可能影响个人对歧视的看法。并提出假设2:与观看按时间顺序叙述性侵犯经历或观看对照视频的人相比,观看性侵犯披露效能视频的少女对受害者歧视程度较低。
  3. 自我效能媒体特性的认同:人们对媒体人物的认同被视为劝诱信息成功的预测因素。并提出假设2a:观看自我效能的媒体信息的人中,认同度高的人对性侵犯受害者的歧视程度较低。
  4. 预见的歧视与趋近性应对行为:感知到的歧视与应对行为方式相互关联,个人面对压力时会评估可预见的歧视,并根据压力评估自己应对危险的能力。并提出假设3:当少女思考披露假想的性侵犯时,对歧视的感知与她们的应对行为方式负相关。
  5. 趋近性应对行为与自我效能:趋近性应对行为方式灵活性越强,自我效能感越高,由此影响情绪导向的应对行为,并影响心理健康。提出假设4:在思考假想的性侵犯时,趋近性应对行为与少女感知到的自我效能感正相关。
  6. 过程模型:用假设序列介导过程模型说明了自我效能型媒体信息与性侵犯披露效能之间的关系。提出假设5:曝光自我效能的媒体信息与性侵犯受害者感知的歧视和那些高度认同自我效能型媒体角色的人的趋近性行为形成的性侵披露效能间接相关。

结果:

用单因素方差分析推翻假设1、2,用回归分析证明假设2a成立,用单尾相关分析证明假设3、4成立,通过最小二乘回归对该条件序列中介模型进行检验,证明假设5部分支持。

总结:

①若少女不披露受到的侵犯,则可能受直接,长期的负面影响

②在认同自我效能媒体角色,感知的歧视较低,有趋近性应对行为的基础上,接触包含自我效能媒体信息的视频有利于激发少女的自我效能感。

③未来研究和实践者创造媒体内容以促使青少年披露性侵犯,应该考虑对青少年披露过程的更全面的理解

④可以以视频中的自我效能信息为工具,促进青少年去接触积极行为的健康信息

Abstract

Sexual assault can have a direct and harmful impact on young girls. However, many girls will face barriers to disclosure after sexual assault, which will lead them to choose not to disclose the relevant information, which will have a negative impact on their physical and mental health.

Media intervention may help to stimulate the effectiveness of adolescent girls’ sexual abuse disclosure. The self-efficacy information imitating disclosure behavior in the media can encourage adolescent girls to be more confident to disclose information about aggression and seek positive and healthy results.

The study used a quasi experimental method to test the effect of self-efficacy information about sexual assault disclosure in YouTube video blogs. The study puts forward six hypotheses to explore the impact of different media stimuli on viewers’ disclosure effectiveness and discrimination against victims, as well as the relationship between media stimuli, victims’ perceived discrimination, coping behavior and disclosure effectiveness.

The results show that among girls who identify with the role of self-efficacy media, the exposure of self-efficacy information will produce higher sexual assault disclosure efficiency, which is indirectly related to the perception of discrimination and proximity coping behavior of sexual assault victims. Appropriate intervention in the disclosure of adolescent sexual assault can include a more comprehensive view of disclosure and the use of new media such as YouTube video blogs to convey the message of self-efficacy.

Words interpretation

Quasi experimental method (quasi experimental research): use certain control procedures and use natural scenes to flexibly control the experimental objects.

Self efficacy: a subjective assessment of an individual’s ability to complete a certain aspect of work. The evaluation results will directly affect a person’s behavioral motivation.

Social cognitive theory: Bandura’s (2001) social cognitive theory describes the process of individuals learning from the people around them, including through the media model.

Experiment

Using the online quasi experimental method, this paper collected 101 young female experimenters of different races in the United States, set three media information stimuli: self-efficacy media information, chronological media information and control media information, and asked participants to assume a scenario about their sexual abuse and consider whether to disclose it to their mother after watching the media information, And answer the corresponding questions on Likert scale according to the hypothetical situation.

Aspect

  1. Self efficacy information: the media model informs the process of individual behavior to overcome the obstacles of executive behavior and stimulate individual behavior, and puts forward hypothesis 1: when girls watch a video imitating the effectiveness of sexual assault disclosure, the level of sexual assault disclosure effectiveness is higher than that of watching a video described in chronological order and a control video.
  2. Media exposure and perceived discrimination: the indirect relationship between health information exposed to self-efficacy and sexual assault disclosure efficacy, and exposure interventions may affect individuals’ views on discrimination. And put forward hypothesis 2: compared with those who watched the chronological narration of sexual assault experience or the control video, the girls who watched the video of sexual assault disclosure efficiency had a lower degree of discrimination against the victims.
  3. Self efficacy Media Identity: People’s identity with media characters is regarded as a predictor of the success of persuasion. Hypothesis 2A: among the people who watch the media information of self-efficacy, the people with high identity have a lower degree of discrimination against the victims of sexual assault.
  4. Perceived discrimination and approaching coping behavior: perceived discrimination and coping behavior are interrelated. When individuals face pressure, they will evaluate foreseeable discrimination and their ability to deal with danger according to pressure. And put forward hypothesis 3: when girls think about disclosing hypothetical sexual assault, their perception of discrimination is negatively correlated with their coping behavior.
  5. Approaching coping behavior and self-efficacy: the stronger the flexibility of approaching coping behavior, the higher the sense of self-efficacy, which affects the emotion oriented coping behavior and mental health. Hypothesis 4: when thinking about hypothetical sexual assault, approaching sexual coping behavior is positively correlated with girls’ perceived self-efficacy.
  6. Process model: the hypothesis sequence mediated process model is used to explain the relationship between self-efficacy media information and sexual assault disclosure efficiency. Hypothesis 5: the exposure of self-efficacy media information is indirectly related to the perceived discrimination of sexual assault victims and the sexual assault disclosure efficiency formed by the approaching sexual behavior of those who highly identify with the self-efficacy media role.

Result

One way ANOVA was used to overturn hypotheses 1 and 2, regression analysis was used to prove hypothesis 2a and one tailed correlation analysis was used to prove hypothesis 3 and 4. The conditional sequence intermediary model was tested by least square regression to prove that hypothesis 5 was partially supported.

Summary

  1. If girls do not disclose their violations, they may suffer direct and long-term negative effects.
  2. On the basis of identifying with the role of self-efficacy media, low perceived discrimination and approaching coping behavior, exposure to videos containing self-efficacy media information is conducive to stimulate girls’ sense of self-efficacy.
  3. Future researchers and practitioners should consider a more comprehensive understanding of the adolescent disclosure process by creating media content to promote adolescent disclosure of sexual assault.
  4. The self-efficacy information in the video can be used as a tool to promote teenagers to contact the health information of positive behavior.

感想:

老师非常认真负责又有趣,但是对我而言,这门课太难了。不论是格式严谨的论文,还是思维导图,又或是视频讲解,所有的一切我都是第一次接触。在做思维导图时,我不禁感叹我毫无设计思维和美感。选这门课的我真是太不自量力了。

原文:

Riggs, R. E., & Rasmussen, E. E. (2021). The influence of video-modeled sexual assault disclosure and self-efficacy messages on sexual assault disclosure efficacy of adolescent girls. Journal of health communication, 26(6), 361-370.

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