作者：Rachel E. Riggs & Eric. E. Rasmussen
出处：Rachel E. Riggs & Eric. E. Rasmussen (2021): E. Rasmussen(2021):视频模拟的性侵犯披露和自我效能信息对少女性侵犯披露效能的影响，健康传播杂志，DOI: 10.1080/10810730.2021.1943729
Sexual assault can have a direct and harmful impact on young girls. However, many girls will face barriers to disclosure after sexual assault, which will lead them to choose not to disclose the relevant information, which will have a negative impact on their physical and mental health.
Media intervention may help to stimulate the effectiveness of adolescent girls’ sexual abuse disclosure. The self-efficacy information imitating disclosure behavior in the media can encourage adolescent girls to be more confident to disclose information about aggression and seek positive and healthy results.
The study used a quasi experimental method to test the effect of self-efficacy information about sexual assault disclosure in YouTube video blogs. The study puts forward six hypotheses to explore the impact of different media stimuli on viewers’ disclosure effectiveness and discrimination against victims, as well as the relationship between media stimuli, victims’ perceived discrimination, coping behavior and disclosure effectiveness.
The results show that among girls who identify with the role of self-efficacy media, the exposure of self-efficacy information will produce higher sexual assault disclosure efficiency, which is indirectly related to the perception of discrimination and proximity coping behavior of sexual assault victims. Appropriate intervention in the disclosure of adolescent sexual assault can include a more comprehensive view of disclosure and the use of new media such as YouTube video blogs to convey the message of self-efficacy.
Quasi experimental method (quasi experimental research): use certain control procedures and use natural scenes to flexibly control the experimental objects.
Self efficacy: a subjective assessment of an individual’s ability to complete a certain aspect of work. The evaluation results will directly affect a person’s behavioral motivation.
Social cognitive theory: Bandura’s (2001) social cognitive theory describes the process of individuals learning from the people around them, including through the media model.
Using the online quasi experimental method, this paper collected 101 young female experimenters of different races in the United States, set three media information stimuli: self-efficacy media information, chronological media information and control media information, and asked participants to assume a scenario about their sexual abuse and consider whether to disclose it to their mother after watching the media information, And answer the corresponding questions on Likert scale according to the hypothetical situation.
- Self efficacy information: the media model informs the process of individual behavior to overcome the obstacles of executive behavior and stimulate individual behavior, and puts forward hypothesis 1: when girls watch a video imitating the effectiveness of sexual assault disclosure, the level of sexual assault disclosure effectiveness is higher than that of watching a video described in chronological order and a control video.
- Media exposure and perceived discrimination: the indirect relationship between health information exposed to self-efficacy and sexual assault disclosure efficacy, and exposure interventions may affect individuals’ views on discrimination. And put forward hypothesis 2: compared with those who watched the chronological narration of sexual assault experience or the control video, the girls who watched the video of sexual assault disclosure efficiency had a lower degree of discrimination against the victims.
- Self efficacy Media Identity: People’s identity with media characters is regarded as a predictor of the success of persuasion. Hypothesis 2A: among the people who watch the media information of self-efficacy, the people with high identity have a lower degree of discrimination against the victims of sexual assault.
- Perceived discrimination and approaching coping behavior: perceived discrimination and coping behavior are interrelated. When individuals face pressure, they will evaluate foreseeable discrimination and their ability to deal with danger according to pressure. And put forward hypothesis 3: when girls think about disclosing hypothetical sexual assault, their perception of discrimination is negatively correlated with their coping behavior.
- Approaching coping behavior and self-efficacy: the stronger the flexibility of approaching coping behavior, the higher the sense of self-efficacy, which affects the emotion oriented coping behavior and mental health. Hypothesis 4: when thinking about hypothetical sexual assault, approaching sexual coping behavior is positively correlated with girls’ perceived self-efficacy.
- Process model: the hypothesis sequence mediated process model is used to explain the relationship between self-efficacy media information and sexual assault disclosure efficiency. Hypothesis 5: the exposure of self-efficacy media information is indirectly related to the perceived discrimination of sexual assault victims and the sexual assault disclosure efficiency formed by the approaching sexual behavior of those who highly identify with the self-efficacy media role.
One way ANOVA was used to overturn hypotheses 1 and 2, regression analysis was used to prove hypothesis 2a and one tailed correlation analysis was used to prove hypothesis 3 and 4. The conditional sequence intermediary model was tested by least square regression to prove that hypothesis 5 was partially supported.
- If girls do not disclose their violations, they may suffer direct and long-term negative effects.
- On the basis of identifying with the role of self-efficacy media, low perceived discrimination and approaching coping behavior, exposure to videos containing self-efficacy media information is conducive to stimulate girls’ sense of self-efficacy.
- Future researchers and practitioners should consider a more comprehensive understanding of the adolescent disclosure process by creating media content to promote adolescent disclosure of sexual assault.
- The self-efficacy information in the video can be used as a tool to promote teenagers to contact the health information of positive behavior.
Riggs, R. E., & Rasmussen, E. E. (2021). The influence of video-modeled sexual assault disclosure and self-efficacy messages on sexual assault disclosure efficacy of adolescent girls. Journal of health communication, 26(6), 361-370.